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    ملاك صعة الامتلاك

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    تاريخ التسجيل: 10/05/2010

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    مُساهمة  ملاك صعة الامتلاك في الثلاثاء مايو 11, 2010 12:37 am

    [size=12]Development of mathematics among the Arabs

    Includes the concept of mathematics past, those sciences which means calculation and algebra and geometry, trigonometry, .. and we will try to conduct the same approach we have followed in the discussion of the topic of translation among the Arabs, to trace the development of this science and the most important scientists who stood by, emphasis on the Arab role in the path of civilization, and visas by , by way of reminder, especially at that stage felt by our compatriot, the lack of weight ..

    First: Account:

    Sometimes called the science of numbers, and its two aspects: first theoretical (the properties of numbers) and the second is practical (knowledge required to work four: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). Account and the first count, and highlights the need for it in the collection of crops and the sale and purchase and divide the inheritance, etc. ..

    The person started a few small numbers, five and then seven, then honor is due to centuries, Valstin .. Of a few things that had been owned at the beginning, or get them at a time, either fishing or followed the old .. When There have been many things have evolved with numbers and formulas expressed as Sntibaha ..

    When the numbers of ancient nations:

    Use the Babylonians in ancient Iraq, tag or sphenoid cuneiform (wedge-wedge is wide of the above, flour from the bottom) .. They were Ermzoa for one wedge and Monday Bisvinin, and the three to ten that the code has the symbol <and placed Bjunb that mark wedges number by dialing the number, for example, number 15, was coded lll <and the number 20 <<hundred, two lines, one horizontal and two vertical - l and one thousand mark to the left of the ten per cent mark (- <l) and so on ..

    The sexagesimal is prevalent in Mesopotamia, and that is flexible for the large number is divided by this system, has Astenbtoh that circle is equal to around six times the radius, Astenbata normal cells from the eyes of bees .. It was founded on this system, and is still division of the Department, and the hour and minute, and the latitude and longitude.

    The ancient Egyptians Fjalo numbers from one to nine l in this form and the ten horse shoe upside down n and one thousand in the form of a lotus flower &)) and the Million Man Kneeling ..

    The Semites, especially the Phoenicians, who took the figures were in alphabetical order of the letters of the alphabet arranged in alphabetical as we read the current Lorem ipsum Put Coleman, etc. .. Were a = 1 and b = 2 and c = 3 and d = 4 is = 5, = 6, g = 7, h = 8, M = 9, j = 10 .. Then k = 20, L = 30, m = 40, N = 50, x = 60, p = 70, P = 80, y = 90, s = 100 .. Then comes the t = 200, u = 300, T = 400, W = 500, G = 600, y = 700, z = 800, AA = 900, N = 1000 ..

    The reader will notice that this numbering is used in the work of spiritual and astrologers, and others who use the roads and other magical ..

    If we take the way the Greeks, we would see the way they borrowed the Phoenician fully with the addition of some few icons ..

    While the Romans, using complex ways, as follows:

    1 = l, 5 = V, 10 = X, 50 = L, 100 = C, 500 = D, and 1000 = M, and the problem is that the pronunciation of numbers is different from written, for example, if we want to type a number (487) to Donah in the form of: CCCCLXXXV11 .

    The Indians understood the first to use zero, by the world of his name (unidentified armed assailants) This was about 200 BC. M. .. Was developed by an Indian astronomical name (Brahma Gupta) in 628 AD and called it (Sindh hantavirus) .. And transfer of good luck to the Arab world Indian astronomical name (Ganga), submitted to the court of the Abbasid Caliph (Mansour) .. Ordered translated and called (Sindh India) .. Still, people in rural Arab fired on the account (Indian) ..

    It is strange that the Arabs evolution, the Indians took them and call them and Europeans (b Account Arab) .. While the Arabs still use the formula Hindi typing the numbers .. Digits when the Arabs:

    Use the Arabs before Islam are two ways to write numbers, the first: the characters as they took away from the people of Iraq and the Phoenicians, and the second: type the number (forty dinars) five hundred and twenty-one So, even if they wanted to say million: they write a thousand thousand dirhams ..

    The zero it is a sign of nothing, They are introduced later on the numbers most recent leap in the performance figures .. , "Hatem said in a poem by zero:

    Considers that it has not lost Iike Dharni .... The hands, which Bouklt by zero * 1

    More recently, the Arab trade, and so it was not necessary for them to know from the account and units of cash and a bushel and years and decades, a lot .. The Almighty God talking to them in a language they understood it has not dripping yet .. Consider the verses such as:

    (And Oaadna Moses thirty nights and Otmmnaha ten) and (dawn and ten nights) and (O Prophet, when you have divorced women Vtalegohn to Dhn) and (The day your Lord is like a thousand years of your reckoning) Many of the verses that mention the dirham and the dinar and the arm and division and tithes and complications , good ten-fold .. Etc

    Arabs did not benefit from the book (Sindh India), translated by the large and of Mansour (Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin Habib) only numbers .. Did not use numbers with mathematical form only in the fourth century AH .. Fbqgua use in writing letters, numbers .. And still that way are common today in many texts ..

    Was named the Hindi numerals in Figures (dust) because the Indians in their dealings they sprinkle wood chips dust, then Inakecon by the figures in transactions and cross-spraying in each .. According to some commentators that the figures were selected forms of Hindi, by the number of angles in the figure ..

    And when I add a zero, there is an evolution but a revolution in the calculations.
    Branches of the account at the Arabs:

    The main branches of arithmetic at the Arabs are:

    First: Scientific Computing:

    Need this knowledge in the implementation of the tools like paper and pens, and also was called the account dusty We had a label on the original .. One of the highlights of the books in this science, (I'm Roamer died in 815 AH) wrote a book on behalf of the (picnic principals from the knowledge of dust) .. And the world Andalusian (Kulasawi died in 891 AH) wrote a book on behalf of (the unveiling informed dust).

    II: The account Antenna:

    This flag does not need tools, but hopes to fast, for example, if we knew the result of multiplying 10 by 10 as 100, the result of hitting 11 in 11 is 121, because 11 +10 = 21 percent, added to which we become 121, even though we do not know the result 9 in 9, and we used the rapid meditation, 9 +10 = 19, and we presented the result was 100 to 81. If we knew that 40 × 40 = 1600, the 41 × 41 would be 41 +40 = 81 added to the 1600 becomes 1681 and so on .. This was the flag used by traders in their travels. The mode (I'm Roamer) published a book (aid in the manufacture of the account antenna).

    III: Calculation of the statutes:

    This science in calculating inheritance and succession and Zakat is complex, has excelled by creative scholars of Islamic law, carried with them some of the pagan peoples, and applied the rather justice .. As happened in South Sudan and some African countries, which was a monopoly of such knowledge among the peoples of those regions, quickly announced his conversion to Islam, including admired his work that brought money as an expert in the division of inheritance.

    IV: Flag of the expense of the contracts:

    Any contracts (fingers), where his assets related to arranging the fingers in the boxes on Sundays and dozens, hundreds and thousands, and that was them skills to express numbers of tens of thousands by the movement of one .. This type of science was applied when the languages were different traders, were Itvahmun signs contract .. Before the evolution of writing styles .* 1

    Scientists Arabs are not imitators, even if they learn about people's experiences, but they quickly add their fingerprints on it .. For example, use the Khwarizmi (d. 232 AH) in his book (the message computation) Hindi numerals, but it is not them, as used from left to right unlike the Indians. Have walked most of the mathematicians for his course.

    Among the most famous Arab scholars in the account are:

    1 Thabit ibn Kara (d. 288 AH)

    Find the number theory Altabp, hitting only one example: Nos. (220 and 284) love each other because the 220 if Vkknah numbers that is divisible by a (1.2, 4, 5.10, 11, 20.22, 44, 55 110) of the total Those figures, while 284 (284) Vkknah the same way if the numbers that divide them, namely, (1.2, 4, 71 142) to the total of 220 * 2

    2 Sinan bin opening Aharani:

    Scientists from the third century AH, the foundations for science (algorithms) in linking relations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division .. And mentioned in several books: (Takht account Indian) and book (plus differentiation) and book (the expense of the commandments) * 3

    3 Abu fulfill Buzjani (d. 388 AH):

    Translated some books of mathematics, and research added to the algorithm, also wrote a book important for employers name (what they need the workers and the book industry account) * 4

    4 Muslim Abu al-Qasim bin Ahmed Elmejraiti died in 398 H:

    Of the most prominent scholars of al-Andalus, known books (in the very number) and who knows Boyamna transactions * 5

    5 Abu Ali al-Hasan ibn al-Hasan Ibn al-Haytham who died in 430 H:

    World in the natural sciences, engineering and mathematics, the most famous books in the account: (account transactions) and (ills in the Indian account (f) solution doubts Euclid) and (the whole of the assets of the account) * 6

    6 I'm building Marrakech died in 721 H:

    Of the people of Marrakech His father works in construction, his most famous books (summarize the work of the account) and the Arts to use the new chips, and the book (the siege small) * 7

    7 Ghayasuddin Jamshid Kashi died in 840 H:

    Although this world have been classified with astronomers at (Samarkand), but it has a famous author name (key account) which is treated with the utmost precision decimal places, thus opening the doors in the development of mathematics and the sciences depend on them.

    References:

    1 Ahmed Nasif al-Janabi: Mathematics at the Arabs, p. 35
    2 Ibid, p. 40
    3 studies in the history of the Arab Thought / d Khalil al-Samarrai / Mosul, 1986, p. 344
    4 Ibid
    5 Ibid
    6 Journal of the Arab / Kuwait 1973 number 172
    7 Omar Farrukh / History of Science at the Arabs, p. 137
    Second: algebra

    Algebra sense simplified: extract the unknown known whether their rate so require. It was called when the Arabs to make reparation and the interview ..

    When scientists recognized the importance of Allogreetmat and its impact in advancing physics research and space and other theories that established the present civilization, leapt to a group of skeptics in the role of the Arabs and particularly so (Khwarizmi and Abu Kamil). Six decades ago, for example, wrote (Tanery P. Tannery) to redress the Arab (not to exceed in any way by the level of (Diovnts 520 m) This was followed by two historians are (Zutin Zeuthen) and (Bourbaki Bourbaki) .* 1

    These studies were not based on the skeptics to try a logical, but it was love in its disregard for the role of others is what pushed them to write it. While some attributed the scientists such as (M. Arnaldz) and (L. Massignon), creativity in this kind of science, to language, is a dynamic crossing of the various issues in a manner more in-depth and analytical ability of the other * 2

    It is mentioned in poetry (genius Thubiani), a pre-Islamic poetry that demonstrates the knowledge of pre-Islamic Arabs to make reparation
    The district judge sentence Girl Having considered the bath to speed up .... Ward Imd
    She said: not been born to us this bathroom .... To Hmamtna with half of it
    Vhspoh Volvoh also said .... Ninety-nine has not been reduced not increased
    One hundred were ended by the Hmamtha .... ATP and hastened the number

    Algebra has evolved as fast as the development of the Principles of Science and Theology, had flocked to Baghdad are important scholars such as Muhammad ibn Musa Khwarizmi, who were introduced to the West Allogreetmat (Algorithm) which is derived from the name as it appears from the pronunciation .. Algorithm has added important additions to the work (Diovntos) gave it a new way to extract the Sun radical mathematical equation ..

    After a century that followed the algorithm, he returned to re interested in reparations membership and its association with knowledge of the account, unlike Algorithm which he linked to database engineering and triangles .. Has followed suit by Thabit ibn Kara, and courageous Abu Kamel ibn Aslam, computer-Masri, who was a contemporary of the algorithm, but it was younger, and author of a work (Kamal algebra and finish and the increase in assets). And Abu meet Buzjani ..

    The scientists who have linked reparation account: Some Mohammed bin Hassan Alkrgi died in (407 AH), author (Emeritus algebra and interview) and Dedicated to the Minister (King pride Ghalib bin Mohammed) took its name. And poet Omar Khayyam died in (515 AH), Ibn al-Banna died in Marrakech (721 e)
    And Abu al-Hasan died in Kulasawi (891 AH), author (Revelation Robes for arithmetic) .. Has a solution in which the equations developed user account two mistakes in solving the equations of first-degree .* 3

    References

    1 History of Mathematics Arabic / d Rushdi Rashed / Centre for Arab Unity Studies / Beirut / i 1/1989 / p. 64
    2 the same source, p. 68
    3 studies in the history of the Arab Thought / d Khalil al-Samarrai / Mosul, 1986, p. 347.
    Trigonometry:

    Knew this science to the Arabs on behalf of the information (genealogy) of any science which is based on the various aspects arising from the ratio between the sides of the triangle, and to them, thanks in making note of the organizer, has its own laws, which separated from astronomy, separated from the mathematics core (and algebra). . Was the right of the Arabs are the founders of this science ..

    Many doubts have been raised, as is always the case when the nation's enemies in the erosion of the cultural importance of effort, the quoted name of the non-Arab, replied that achievement of non-Arabs .. The name was an Arab, the demolition will be complete for his first goal in the civilization of the people who sticks to his predecessors in that non-United.

    The response of this science to the Indians at times, and the Greeks once again, and the Secretariat for the Greeks was used for research astronomy, he meant by the angle triangle and the corresponding sides of the triangle, in the triangle plane, trigonometry, spherical, and did not exceed role of the Indians better than they know for (Pocket PC ) on the measurement of the angle against the ribs divided by the corresponding chord in the right-angled triangle, and take their word (pocket Geva Hindi) ..

    The Arabs have dug up the rules on the existing football Palmthelthat corner and reached to resolve issues relating to football Palmthelthat diagonal corner, and used the tangents and cutouts in the measurement of angles and triangles, and knew the basic rule to the area of spherical triangles.

    Among the most famous top-level scientists in this science are:

    1 Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Jabir al-Battani (d. 317 H) .. It is the first of the schedules cotangent ..

    2 Abu fulfill Buzjani (died 388 AH) .. Find a way to create tables in the pockets of flat triangles ..

    3 Tusi Nasir al-Din died in 672 AH .. Status message (Figure four) goes against the theory (Ptolemy) and his theory was translated from Arabic into different languages .. Research also has many other triangles ..

    References:

    1 History of Mathematics Arabic / d Rushdi Rashed / Centre for Arab Unity Studies / Beirut / i 1 / 1989 / p. 300
    2 Studies in the history of the Arab Thought / d Khalil al-Samarrai / Mosul, 1986, p. 348.
    Engineering:

    Engineering at the ancient nations:

    Indicate effects that were discovered in Iraq, that the people of Iraq veterans have known engineering, emerged in their buildings (the hanging gardens of World Wonder) and their ways in the division of agricultural land, and the work of the channels within the geometric relationships and clear ..

    He knew the population of Egypt engineering since early in 2950 BC. M built the pyramid of Saqqara was high in 1960, and in 2885 BC. M built Great Pyramid at Giza was the height of 150 m, and used in the construction of 2.3 million stone weight of stone per 2.5 tons, the standards of accurate, taking into account the control of the Nile flood, which is learning is not easy.

    The Greeks have taken the geometry from the Egyptians and developed upon the world of them had studied in Egypt, his name (Thales died in 545 BC). Has devised a method to measure the altitude of the construction is far from his .. Pythagoras was also famous author of the theory.

    Engineering at the Arabs:

    Arab neighbors, Iraq and Egypt, if they have not affected them, they have Engthm special show their understanding of the secrets of science since the early Frvo dam construction dam (Marib), which was one of the wonders of the ancient times to know the flow of water and the recruitment of breaking waves and water use building materials of a permanent nature still retains some of the old palaces durability even today .. The castles and palaces throughout the Arabian Peninsula, was demonstrated on that .. As stated in the Koran said the clans which carved out deficiencies in the Rocky Mountains are still ruins of the city of Petra Jordan stare until today .. The destroyed buildings, such as built in the twelfth century BC and the city of old urban areas of Iraq's Arab, inadequate, such as Khurnq .. And even build the Kaaba itself was a sign of knowledge of the ancient Arabs in engineering.

    However, the Arab Engineering Code had been started in the era of the Abbasid Caliph Abu Jafar al-Mansur, and the subsequent activity is divided into two Arab Engineering:

    I: Alatbai:

    An event after translation of the Book of Euclid's Greek engineering, Arbwa book to be named (Staff) or (assets) has been explained by Ibn al-Haytham and developed by the deceased (430 e) also described Abu al-Qasim ibn Muhammad Granadan repaint (d. 426) .. And explained and added it (Ibn Sina).

    II: Creative:

    Arabs likely Alitbai on the creative side, and demonstrated that their buildings in the East and West of the world, and inscriptions which Zaozhua by what they took from the ancient civilizations and contemporary to them, and re-production Pennekhthm special is called later (arabesque) .. Though this term has been dominated on the decoration and construction industry within the ..

    The most prominent Arab scientists engineering:

    1 Abu Kamel brave Egyptian ibn Aslam (d. 318 AH) .. Was Onbg scientists of his time with the book (the space and engineering) .. With a message in a polygon with angles of the five have been translated into Italian.

    2 Yaqub ibn Ishaq Al-Kindi (d. 260 AH) the famous Arab philosopher, his book (for Euclid's book) and has a message in the account of engineering.

    3 children Musa bin Shakir (Mohammed and Ahmed Hassan) has mentioned them in translation when the Arabs .. Fortunately for them the book (Figure circular and rectangular).

    4 Thabit ibn Kara (d. 288 AH) has four in Engineering .. (Mining engineering problems (f) entrance to the Book of Euclid) and book (the work ran out) and book (in the box and drop).

    There are also met Buzjani Abu, Abu Rayhan al-Biruni and dozens of scientists evacuation.
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